What is scientific style?
In Russian, several styles are used: official-business, colloquial, journalistic, artistic, and also scientific. Today we will talk about the scientific style. What is the scientific style, how to apply it correctly in life?
Scientific style is an active style in speechliterary language, it has several features: the accuracy and uniqueness of utterances, the direct order of words in the sentence, the use of scientific terminology, the nature of speech - monologic, normality, logic, clarity.
In the scientific style, textbooks, reference books,dictionaries, abstracts, reports, course, diploma, control. The scientific style of speech is divided into several sub-styles, such as scientific (scientific article, diploma), educational (recommendations, various directories), popular lining (an article in a scientific publication, a scientific essay).
Features of scientific style in Russian
The scientific style of speech is used in a number of different disciplines and sciences. He also has various genres (monograph, report, article, scientific book, textbook, thesis work).
In the scientific style, logic anda consistent presentation of the author's thoughts, a clear and orderly relationship between sentences. This style does not accept subterfuge, excessive "water" in the text, expression of emotions. Everything should be described accurately, concisely, concisely, while the content should be saturated. What is logicality in scientific style? This is the presence of semantic links between sentences, paragraphs and paragraphs in the text.
Text that has a sequencethe presentation of thoughts, presupposes the conclusions arising from its content. Often the scientific text is divided into separate blocks for better understanding. The thought in each of them must be clearly seen either deductively or inductively. This style should be clear, understandable and accessible.
Vocabulary of scientific style of speech
Also in the scientific style there are alsolexical units, as terms. Usually they make up fifteen to twenty percent of the total content in the text written in the scientific style. An example of a text in scientific style with the meaning of the term: "Bulimia - this mental illness caused by a perverted perception of its appearance is inherent in a large number of people living in developed countries." Often terms are words that are understandable in other languages, since they are international.
Morphology of scientific style
The scientific style involves saving words in favor ofbrevity and accuracy, therefore it uses certain grammatical forms. For example, this is the use of words in the masculine gender instead of the female: "cuff" (m. P.) Instead of "cuff" (l.).
In the scientific style, the names of concepts prevail over the names of actions, thus using fewer verbs.
Each student could notice that in the scientific stylein the singular, the plural is implied. For example, this happens when a definition of this or that concept is written in the textbook: "the word is ...", "the frog is ...", "the atom is ...". The concept is used in the singular, although the definition itself refers not only to this one concept, but to all the same. "Atom is ..." - the definition refers not to one atom, but to all atoms in the world. It turns out that the terms in the definitions are used in a generalized form.
As for the verbs in the scientific style, theyare used with weak face values, numbers and times: instead of "computing produces" - "computing is done by ..."; instead of an "answer find" - "the answer is with the help of ...", etc.
Most often for a scientific style, verbs are taken in the timeless present imperfect type: "percent is", "the population lives", "the molecule is divided," and so on.
For the scientific style, pronouns are almost not characteristic of you, you, the forms of the second person, rarely use verbs in the form of the 1st person. The pronouns "we" and the forms of the third person are more often used.
Syntax and scientific style
We all know that the text written by the scientificstyle, very difficult for perception, overloaded with terms and definitions. Proposals are built complex and sometimes occupy a whole paragraph. Usually for a scientific style, they use sentences with homogeneous sentence members and generalization words for them. Also, subordinate unions, introductory words and combinations, cliche words are used. Examples of the units inherent in the scientific style in the text: "Consider the above variant"; "It is worth comparing the current proposal"; "The text is as follows ..."
Underpinned the scientific style
- The scientist reveals and describes modern facts, new discoveries and patterns. They use it to write scientific reports, articles, reviews.
- Scientific and educational. Typically, this style is written textbooks and reference books for students in various educational institutions.
- Scientific and technical. This style is used to write various materials for technical experts.
Genres of scientific style
In this style, you can note such genres asa journal article, a monograph, a textbook, a review, a textbook, a lecture, an oral presentation, a scientific report. All of the above are primary genres, as they are presented by the author for the first time.
There are secondary genres, such as abstracts (alreadyrevised information), summary, annotation, etc. Genres of the style of educational and scientific - this is a lecture, a lecture, a course. In short, everything that relates to the learning process.
In our country for the first time we heard about the featuresscientific style in the eighteenth century, when science began to develop. Then the terms and books containing them became necessary. Articles written in scientific style began to appear. Special thanks are due to MV Lomonosov for his enormous contribution to the development of science in our country.
In this article, you could read a little about what a scientific style is, examples of this style can be found in large numbers on the Internet, as well as in regular textbooks, dictionaries and reference books.