What are the issues of construction climatology?
Attention! In order to know the normative values, it is necessary to refer to SNiP 23-01-99 - Building climatology (SNiP 2.01.01-82 replaced). The article is of a general familiarity.
What is construction climatology?
Building physics is an integrateda combination of technical disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, climatology, ecology and many others. Accordingly, building climatology is one of the sections of this science dealing with construction issues. Namely:
- studying the influence of climate on the comfort of living;
- revision of options for using climate features to reduce the energy needs of the building;
- the location of a single building or a whole building with respect to the sides of the world;
- taking into account the amount of precipitation, prevailing wind directions, etc.
Thanks to the knowledge gained, it is possible to use natural energy, territory, material and technical resources more rationally, and so on.
Construction climatology uses the following strategies:
- Creating a shadow. Two approaches can be applied here. Either the orientation of the building in the best way, or, if the first is impossible, the use of sunscreens.
- Use of solar energy. This includes solar batteries, the use of anti-aircraft windows, etc.
- Application of ventilation. Provision of ventilation by natural means or use of forced ventilation.
- The device of heat-retaining fences. This includes the insulation of buildings.
- Use of water for cooling by evaporation.
Applying the above strategiespromotes more rational use of resources and increase the comfort of staying in the building. Construction climatology and geophysics make it possible to reduce the number of necessary technical equipment, which leads to savings in operating costs.
In order to achieve the desired result, the application of climate modeling in the process of creating a project that takes into account all natural factors and phenomena is required.
Despite the current SNiP "Constructionclimatology ", on the territory of Russia and CIS countries, the climatic possibilities are applied only slightly. Often this is due to the fact that, despite the subsequent savings, at the initial stage requires a significant investment of funds. While abroad energy-intensive construction comes out on top in importance and relevance.
Passive energy efficiency measures include the following:
- use of renewable energy sources;
- climatic adaptation of architecture;
- the use of energy-intensive glazing, enclosing structures, etc.
It should be noted that for all the forecasts concerning energy, the energy-intensive construction and wide application of construction climatology have a great future and are becoming more and more in demand.