What are the countries?
In the world economy there is a clear classification of countries by such criteria:
- absolute and relative GDP (GNP);
- branch structure of the national economy;
- ND and per capita income;
- structure of exports, imports of the country;
- quality of life and population.
Economic classification of countries can beis defined by several approaches. Thus, the most understandable classification of countries in terms of development level is based on the division of states into several groups according to the level of income per capita.
According to different approaches, the classification of the countries of the world is conducted by definition of their role in the world economy.
Typology of countries
On the role of the world economy
The socio-economic nature of all countries in the world is extremely heterogeneous. At the moment, there are three groups in the question of which countries there are:
- countries are industrialized, with a dominant market economy. These powers form the framework of the entire world economy;
- developing countries - they include the states of Latin America and Oceania, Asia, Africa;
- states with transitional economies. Today they are mainly represented by the countries of Eastern Europe, Russia. These powers are on the way of developing alternative new forms of management.
It is a mistake to draw a line between the abovegroups. In the question of which countries are, the classification reflects the situation with the objects of the world economy, which changes with the development of the economy every day. An example can serve as a whole group of developing countries - South Korea and Hong Kong, Taiwan, Brazil and Argentina, which for a number of economic indicators already today it would be logical to refer to the group of industrialized world powers. For all this, the level of other indicators, such as the depth of social contrasts, regional development, has traditionally still come under the definition of developing countries.
Industrialized countries with a stablemarket economy are represented by a group of 25 states with a total of about 1.2 billion people (this is approximately 23% of the world's total population). These powers concentrate more than 70% of world GDP, and produce 70-75% of output in various industries from total world industrial production. A high level of GDP and about 70% of the world's foreign trade turnover falls on these countries.
Classification of countries by their role in world politics and economics
There are three groups of countries.
- The first is formed by the seven of the main countries: Japan, USA, Germany, Great Britain, France, Canada and Italy. They are considered leaders due to their role in world politics and economics. Also, the level of labor productivity in these countries is much higher than in the rest, and the successes in science and technology are impressive.
- The second group consists of 14 countries (Belgium,Austria, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, etc.). These countries are small in size and characterized by a high level of social and economic development, Often they are the link in the political and economic relations of the states of the first group.
- The third group is represented by countries with "migratory capitalism" (Australia, Israel, South Africa).
On the level of development and structure of the productive forces
- The first group is represented by the most developedcountries of Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay, etc.) and some industrial countries in Asia (South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong).
- The second group is the countries that export oil andpossessing unique resources (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, etc.). All of them have a favorable economic position and rich natural potential, which increases the level of per capita income.
- The third group consists of countries with an average level of economic development and average GDP (Colombia, Guatemala, Paraguay, Tunisia, etc.).
- In the fourth group, countries with hugeterritories and a large population, natural resources and opportunities for economic development. Here stand out India, Pakistan and Indonesia. These countries are important in the international context, but they are noticeably drawn down by socio-economic development.
- The fifth group is represented by the least developedcountries of the world (Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Somalia, Benin, Chad, etc.). Their low per capita income is associated with an unprofitable economic situation, therefore, agriculture predominates.