Well water cleaning: an overview of the best and most effective ways
The well is one of the most affordable ways to supply a country plot. It gives life-giving moisture for the natural needs of the household, their household needs and watering the plants on the site. Therefore, the water in it should be free from all kinds of impurities. If this is not the case, it must be cleaned without fail.
What stages include cleaning water from the well and whether it can be done on its own, we consider in the article.
The main causes of contamination of well water
The opinion that well water is a priori clean is wrong. The depth of this water source is not so great. In the groundwater that feeds the well, impurities are often present in a dissolved or suspended state.
In the upper layer often live various kinds of bacteria that multiply, creating colonies and decompose with time, form hydrogen sulfide-containing compounds.Such compounds give the water an unpleasant odor and make it toxic, and therefore dangerous to human health.
Causes that trigger water pollution are conventionally divided into two types:
- Natural phenomena. These could be changes in the aquifer supplying the source, or seasonal phenomena. For example: getting into a source of organic matter, sunlight ...
- The problems provoked by man.Arise in violation of technology installation facilities and errors during its operation. For example: the proximity of septic tanks, the depressurization of seams, corrosion of metal elements ...
When arranging hydraulic structures it is important to monitor the renewal of water. So, with an irregular fence, it will stagnate and become turbid.
If the head of the source is open, then leaves and branches, insects and rodents can freely get into it.
If the well is installed on the surface, then there is a high probability of the presence in the water of a high content of colloidal impurities, organic and chemical substances. All these processes must be controlled and eliminated in time.
Main signs of water pollution
Studies of water from the well should be carried out annually, since its composition in an underground source, depending on seasonal changes and other external factors, may vary constantly.
This is especially important if the source is used only in summer. On the need for water purification from the well will indicate a number of signs.
Turbidity and sediment
The opacity of the water signals that too much silty fine particles and suspended silt particles have accumulated inside the walls of the structure. This happens if the well rings have lost tightness due to the erosion of the seams or when the elements are displaced relative to each other.
A clear sign of a violation of the integrity of the walls of the structure is the turbidity of water after heavy rains.Mechanical cleaning of the shaft helps to eliminate the drawback, complemented by works on sealing the seams and sealing the joints.
The appearance above the water surface of the oil film indicates the presence of petroleum products. This may occur due to depressurization of the mine. Or for the banal reason for inadequate cleanliness during the operation of a hydraulic structure.
Natural color change
The shade of water in the well depends on the type of pollution. A change of color to green indicates the "bloom" of water. The reason for this may be getting into the mine in direct sunlight.
The problem is solved by disinfecting water with the use of chemicals and the subsequent installation of carbon filters.
Brown and yellow shades indicate that the water has a high iron content. Disinfection in this case is not effective.To solve the problem will only help the arrangement of the water treatment system and the installation of additional filters.
The water gets black color due to organic pollution, which in the process of decomposition and decay infect it. To eliminate decaying organic matter, simple disinfection is no longer necessary. To get water that can be consumed, it is necessary to perform a multi-stage cleaning.
The appearance of a strange smell
Clay or earthy smell due to the presence in the liquid of organic natural compounds such as 2-methylisobornol and geosmin. They are formed during the vital activity of soil bacteria and blue-green algae present in the water. The mechanical cleaning of the structure with the subsequent arrangement of household reverse osmosis and the installation of filters equipped with activated carbon helps to eliminate the cause.
The smell of rotten eggs has water in which sulphuric bacteria are present. They produce hydrogen sulfide.
The smell of phenol and other unnatural odors indicate that sewage and other products of human activity most likely fell through the underground aquifers. You can solve the problem by carrying out mechanical cleaning and installing a carbon filter.
Unusual taste of water
A salty taste occurs due to the increased salt content: NaSO4, NaCl, MgSO4. It can be removed by performing additional purification of water, passing it through household reverse osmosis.
A metallic taste indicates the presence of iron in the water. The deferrization methods help to correct the situation. For example, the installation of a compressor that will saturate the water with oxygen, a circulation pump and an iron remover filter.
The sour taste of water, which has a blue-green hue, speaks to a high content of carbon dioxide. This phenomenon occurs due to the reaction of water upon contact with copper and bronze elements of the system.
Increased hardness indicates the presence of calcium and magnesium salts in the liquid composition. Stiffness is not a constant value. It fluctuates with the season and reaches its peak in summer.
To fix the situation you can install systems softening. Reagent and non-reagent filters for complex cleaning are capable of demineralizing and softening water.
Well water quality analysis
These "symptoms" indicate severe water pollution. And until the moment when it is cleared, it is not recommended to operate the structure. To find out the cause of pollution and find the optimal solution for its elimination, it is necessary to take water samples and pass them on for analysis.
The sequence of action when collecting fluids for research:
- The 1.5 liter plastic or glass container is thoroughly washed with running water, without using detergents. For taking samples perfect plastic bottle from under the mineral or distilled water.
- The container is gradually filled with water so that excessive pressure in the bottle does not form an excess of oxygen. If an automatic water supply system has been set up from the well, it is worthwhile to first drain the water from the tap, and then fill the bottle to the neck with a small head.
- The filled container is tightly closed and wrapped in a dark plastic bag.
- Within three hours from the moment of sampling, the container with the liquid is delivered to the laboratory.
Keep in mind that after two days from the moment of fluid intake, the results will be unreliable.
Independently perform a water quality analysis will not work. Obtaining accurate results can not be achieved without the use of special equipment.
This kind of research deals with:
- sanitary epidemiological station;
- state laboratories at geodesic centers;
- licensed private centers;
- accredited laboratories of Rospotrebnadzor.
The price of the service depends on the type of analysis. It can be abbreviated, focused on the identification of a certain group of substances, or complete, including chemical and microbiological research.
The results obtained are entered in the protocol, which indicates the permissible percentage ratio of impurities and substances in accordance with current sanitary standards. A report will be attached to the protocol on the suitability of water and the presence of potentially harmful microorganisms and substances.
At the request of the customer, specialists can also give recommendations on how best to clean the water in a particular well and what kind of filtration systems will be used in the future.
Effective cleaning methods
If the results of the study showed that the concerns are not unfounded and that the water contains impurities that are hazardous to health, the situation should be corrected as soon as possible.
The choice of method depends on the cause of contamination. If debris has accumulated inside the structure, and mucus has formed on the walls, a mechanical method should be used to clean the structure.
Mechanical cleaning of the mine
The method involves the purification of the walls and bottom of a hydraulic structure by washing or scraping accumulated layers.
Mechanical cleaning is best done at the end of summer or in early spring until the snow melts. In the offseason, there is the lowest level of groundwater.
The mechanical cleaning procedure includes several basic steps:
- Water pumping. Before performing mechanical cleaning, the construction is pre-emptied, pumping the liquid with a drainage pump. Consider that it will not be possible to completely drain the shaft of the well; a small amount of water will remain at the bottom.
- Cleansing the walls and bottom.The worker performing the cleaning, dressed in a protective suit, falls into the well. The helper stays on the surface and takes the filled buckets. Garbage and sludge residues are removed manually with a metal brush or a conventional scraper. Crushed stone and sand, covering the bottom of the structure and performing the function of a bottom filter, are replaced by a new one.
- Repair and strengthening of well rings.If necessary, to prevent the rings from moving relative to each other, they are reinforced with metal clips.
- Sealing seams. When cracks in the seams between the rings are detected, defects are sealed with cement mortar, to which liquid glass is added.
When replacing the bottom filter, natural sorbents like shungite or zeolite can be used instead of rubble. They not only mineralize water, but also protect it from heavy metals and oil products. The thickness of the newly lined layer should be at least 15 cm.
Water disinfection is performed after the completion of mechanical cleaning and elimination of leaks in the joints. It is performed by applying the solution on the walls of the structure with a fur roller or a wide brush. Bleaching powder is used for this purpose.
To prepare a 2% solution, bleach is diluted with water per 1 liter of liquid 20 g of powder. When using pure chlorine, a solution of the required concentration is obtained by diluting the powder at a rate of 3-5 g per 1 liter of water.
The prepared solution is infused for 1-2 hours in a container under a tightly closed lid. The pooled mixture is poured into another container.The upper layer has risen to the surface and is used for disinfection.
Disinfection of the well using chlorine is performed in the following sequence:
- The diluted 2% solution is applied using a wide brush or roller onto the inner walls of the well, covering them evenly over the entire surface. The remains of the drug process bottom filter.
- After application of the well filled with water well. In the poured water add a new portion of the solution, but prepared already in a ratio of 1: 5.
- The solution, poured into the well, is thoroughly mixed with a long pole or by alternately scooping up the liquid with a bucket and then pouring it back.
- The mouth of the well treated and filled with water is covered with a lid with plastic wrap and left for a day. This is necessary because chlorine tends to evaporate quickly. For chlorine to give the desired effect, it is important to keep the mine cool.
- After waiting 24 hours, chlorinated water is pumped out of the well and waiting for it to be filled. The next day, the decontamination procedure is repeated.
One cubic meter on average takes 500 g of solution.
Water that has been cleaned cannot be used. Before putting the facility into operation, the well will have to be emptied and wait for it to be filled from scratch.
If chlorine smell is present in the water after filling, you will have to repeat the procedure. Within 5-7 days after the completion of chlorination, the water is boiled.
If we consider other available means, the disinfection of the structure can also be performed using the same potassium permanganate. To do this, potassium permanganate is diluted in water at the rate of 1 teaspoon of powder per 10 liters of liquid. The solution is poured into the mine with water.
After waiting a day, they devastate the well and wait until it is filled again.After completion of the cleaning, a small bag, sewn of synthetic fabric and filled with potassium permanganate, is lowered into the mine. It should be left in the well permanently.
On sale there are also special chlorine-containing drugs such as "Akvatabs", "Septolit-DHTS", "Ekobriz-Oxy" They are available in liquid, powdered or tablet form.
On the basis of these concentrates, in accordance with the instructions, dilute the disinfectant solutions, which are used according to the technology used when working with bleach. Any of these tools improves water quality and prolongs the life of the structure.
The use of dosing cartridges
In the case of severe water pollution, when simple cleaning methods do not give the desired result, experts recommend using more radical measures - use dosing cartridges.
The body of ammunition from 250 to 1000 cm3, made of ceramics, the porous walls of which freely pass active chlorine into the water.The number of cartridges required for disinfection depends on the volume of water in the mine and the degree of contamination.
Disinfection with the use of dosing cartridges should be performed under the guidance of SES workers, while monitoring water quality with respect to microbiological and sanitary-chemical indicators.
The containers are suspended in the shaft of the well, immersed in the water column and placed at a height of 20 to 50 cm from the surface of the bottom filter.
Monitoring the concentration of the active substance in water is carried out after 6 hours from the moment of immersion of the cartridge. It should be 0.5 mg / l. If the figures are lower than what is needed, another cartridge is buried.
In the future, concentration control is performed every seven days. Cartridges are replaced at intervals of every 3-4 weeks.
An alternative UV cleaning method
Disinfection of the contents of the well can be performed by irradiating it with ultraviolet light. This method is less labor intensive, but more expensive. Ultraviolet disinfection is performed only after a preliminary mechanical cleaning.
UV rays, the wavelength range of which is 200-295 Nm, are capable of destroying pathogenic microorganisms.
The higher the radiation dose, the less time is required to disinfect the contents of the mine. For the destruction of most pathogenic bacteria, a radiation dose of 15 mJ / cm² is sufficient.
The main advantage of water treatment by ultraviolet irradiation is that it does not cause a change in the taste of drinking water.
Water pollution prevention
Cleaning and disinfection of water in the well requires a lot of time and effort. To minimize the occurrence of this kind of trouble in the future, do not forget to carry out preventive disinfection measures.
Compliance with a number of simple rules will help to prevent water pollution in the well:
- At installation of a construction take care of the device of the clay lock. To do this, dig a trench around the well, 1.5-2 meters wide and 50-100 cm deep. It should be filled with clay and tamped tightly. The erected clay castle will simultaneously perform two functions: to prevent the penetration of moisture and to prevent contamination of the structure through the seams between the rings.
- When arranging the bottom filter, use flint gravel, which has the ability to soften water, or zeolite, which acts as a natural sorbent.
- Equip the top of the well cover or canopy. They will not allow dust and small debris to enter the mine, as well as protect well water from direct sunlight.
- To reduce the risk of leakage when operating a hydraulic structure, use stations with remote ejectors and pumps of submersible design.
Proper arrangement of the water source will eliminate the need for frequent disinfection work.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video review of the tablet disinfectant Akvabriz:
Video review of the lamp for the ultraviolet disinfection system:
Do not wait for thunder out of the blue. After all, water is what we use daily. And because it is so important to be sure that it does not contain harmful substances. To protect yourself and your loved ones, do not neglect the rules of operation and regularly check the composition of the water, even if it seems to be crystal clear.