Theories of the origin of the state
Since ancient times, various theories have appearedthe emergence of state and law. The first of these were: theological, irrigation, patriarchal, violence and others. In the future, there were other: social contract, psychological, organic, diffuse and others.
There are basic theories of the origin of the state. These include:
- Theological theory.Its representatives are Aurelius Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. The essence of the theory is that the state arose from God's will. From this it follows that the state itself and its institutions are eternal, holy and unshakable, they arise and are abolished regardless of man. The state expresses the will of God on earth.
- The Patriarchal Theory.Representatives of the theory are Aristotle and Confucius. The essence is that the state is formed from families that are growing with each generation, the management of which requires the power of the ruler, which is the continuation of the father's power.
- The theory of violence. Representatives - Dühring, Gumplowicz.The state and political power arose because of conquest, violence and enslavement of tribes (external violence). It was necessary to manage the conquered tribes. The state also emerged as a result of internal violence, as a group of people subordinates others violently. It was necessary for expanding the territories, collecting tribute, maintaining order, winning goods.
- Irrigation area.The peasant could not make full use of the resources of the large rivers himself. It was necessary to mobilize the efforts of all people living along these rivers. Thus there were Ancient China, Egypt and Babylon.
Modern basic theories of the emergence of the state:
- Contract theory.Representatives - Denis Diderot, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke. The state arose on the basis of a social contract. In support of their position the representatives of the theory cited the following arguments: people were originally in a primitive natural state. Everyone did not take into consideration others and pursued only his own personal interests. As a result, a "war of all against all" arose. In order to preserve a society that could destroy itself, a social contract was concluded, according to which people gave up some rights for the sake of mutual interests and survival. And there arose a state that was called upon to provide these goals.
- Organic theory.Representatives - Herbert Spencer, Plato. The state is compared with a biological organism. As cells form the body, so are people the state. State institutions are compared with parts of the body: the ruler with the brain, finances and communications with the circulatory system that provides the body's activity, peasants with hands. Only the most adapted states survive, as with natural selection, they are constantly improving.
- Psychological theory.Representatives of this theory of the emergence of the state - Petrazhitsky, Freud. The state arose in connection with the psychic properties of man, namely: the weak want to be protected and want to obey the strong. Strong people want to dominate others and are able to subordinate others to their will. State power was formed from the primitive, which belonged to psychologically strong people - leaders and priests.
In addition to the basic there are other theories of the origin of the state:
- Incest theory. The representative is Levi-Strauss. Society and the state arose as a result of the prohibition of incest of close relatives (incest).
- Sports theory. The state arose as a result of physical exercises, the passage of games and sports in general.
- and other theories of the origin of the state.