Overview of the septic tank "Sunrise": characteristics, model range, installation rules
The cesspools are not satisfied with anyone. The need for frequent professional cleaning is not their only drawback. The outdated technologies were replaced by universal modular constructions that allow organizing an autonomous sewage system on the site.
The most economical solution to the issue of recycling household waste - Septic Sunrise. The assets of the model: simple installation, unpretentious care and long service life.
Device and principle of operation
The septic tank is a key element of the local treatment complex. The main function of the unit - the accumulation and treatment of wastewater coming through the sewer network at home. The level of dirt removal and fluid filtration depends on the type of structure.
Septic Sunrise is a cumulative hermetic tank with strong thick walls that are reinforced with stiffeners.The cylindrical shape of the tank provides good resistance to soil pressure and reliable fixation.
In addition to the bulk tank, the purifier kit includes:
- neck - the element is designed for pumping sediment;
- the cover - closes a mouth, protects a septic tank from hit in it of foreign objects, leaves, rainfall and snow;
- filter - located inside the drive, performs biological and mechanical cleaning.
The filter consists of a variety of polymer fibers, woven together. The cleaner is not subject to corrosion, oxidation and deformation. The filtering components keep the waste substances of different fractions. Over time, organic matter undergoes the process of decay and breaks down into small particles.
The cleaning system Sunrise is a classic version of the sump. The device uses the principle of sewage waste separation under the influence of gravity and the subsequent decomposition of organic substances by anaerobic bacteria - without the participation of oxygen.
Conventionally, the entire cleaning process can be divided into the following steps:
- Sewage from the house enters the sump through a sewer pipe.
- Under the action of gravity, the primary decomposition of waste into heavy and light particles. Sludge in the form of sediment sinks to the bottom of the storage tank, and the suspension and fatty components float to the surface.
- Liquid with small fractional waste leaks through the biofilter and is discharged to an additional ground treatment (drainage well, filtration field or infiltrator).
If the complex has two tanks, then semi-purified water is piped into the next tank. Next, the cleaning process is repeated.
Advantages and disadvantages of the model "Sunrise"
The owners of the dacha plots, houses and cottages using the Voskhod system note an impressive number of positive aspects and several negative points. The advantages of the water treatment system include:
- autonomy of work - the septic tank is independent of energy supply;
- high reliability and durability - the tank is designed very simply, there is practically nothing to break in the device;
- ease of installation - you will be able to install it yourself;
- affordable pricing policy on the model "Sunrise".
Negative user feedback is usually associated with the wrong choice of volume of the cleaner or violation of operating rules.
Instead of an absorption well for natural drainage of treated wastewater into the soil, an infiltrator is used or a filtration field is constructed from the drainage pipes laid in trenches. They perform functions similar to the responsibilities of the absorption well, but the depth of their conditional bottom is significantly higher.
The choice of the type of structure for ground treatment is associated with the level of groundwater at the site. It should be borne in mind that between the groundwater table (groundwater level) and the conditional bottom of the well, infiltrator or filtration field should be a ground thickness of at least 1 m.
Additional disadvantages of using a septic tank:
- during operation, some users noted the appearance of an unpleasant smell;
- It is advisable to warm the cleaning complex for the winter period.
Like most autonomous sewer systems, Sunrise needs timely cleaning - removal of solid sediment. An aspener machine is called every two to three years - the dates are individual and depend on the operating conditions.
Characteristics of various modifications
Depending on the number of residents, the availability of sanitary equipment and appliances, and hence on the volume of wastewater, a septic tank model is selected. There are two versions on the market: Voskhod-1, Voskhod-2.
"Voskhod-1"- single-chamber installation designed for servicing a compact house, where no more than four people live. The volume of the tank is 1400 liters, the maximum allowable discharge of wastewater should not exceed 700 liters per day.
"Voskhod-2"- two-chamber model for 2000 liters. The volume of the reservoir is enough for a family of four or five people. The mass of the accumulator is 80 kg, the tank is designed for fluid flow in the range of 800 l per day. The model has overflow pipes connecting both tanks. The movement of runoff waters occurs by gravity - the outlet is located below the inlet.
The three-chamber model "Voskhod-3" with a capacity of 3000 liters is in lower demand. Installation of a septic tank is complicated due to large dimensions and weight. Volumetric tank should be used for maintenance of the house, where more than six people live.
Technology of installation of a septic tank on a site
Septic tanks Voskhod are established by the same principle, as well as similar models with soil additional treatment. Conventionally, the whole technological process consists of the following stages: site selection, preparation of the pit, installation of a reservoir, organization of soil purification and supply of pipes.
Site selection: requirements according to SNiP
In determining the location of the Voskhod sump, it should be guided by the norms outlined in the SNiP: 2.04. 03-85, 2.04.01-85 and 2.04.04-84.
- The minimum allowable distance to a nearby flowing reservoir is 10 m, to a standing one - 30 m. The distance to a reservoir with drinking water is from 50 m.
- The distance from the drive with sewage to trees, the gas pipeline or the road is at least 5 m, and to the border of the backyard plot - 4 m. Bushes can be planted no closer than 1 m from the tank.
- The distance between the cleaner and the foundation of an economic building should be from 1 m. This eliminates the risk of undermining the structure during depressurization of the sump.
- From the dwelling to the septic tank it is necessary to retreat 5 m.This gap is due to sanitary safety, as well as the possible appearance of an unpleasant odor from the sewage treatment plant.
However, to remove the sump at a great distance from the house is not worth it. If the pipeline exceeds 15 m, you will have to install additional inspection wells.
When placing a septic tank should consider the features of the terrain:
- Disposal system must be equipped on a hill - this will reduce the risk of flooding the septic tank with thawed or rainwater. The level of the tank should be lower than the bathroom on the first floor of the house.
- If a well or a well with drinking water is located on a slope in the area, then a septic tank is installed lower along the direction of the slope.
In advance, it is necessary to provide for free access of the aspenisation machine to the septic tank.
The standard length of the pumping hose is 15 m. If the septic tank is located in the depth of the plot, you can use the services of an sludge pumping machine equipped with a 40 m hose.
Installation of sewage treatment plant
The list of necessary tools and materials:
- bayonet spade - preparation of the pit and trenches;
- sand and crushed stone - the formation of a sand pillow;
- concrete slab - if the septic tank is installed in loam or clay;
- polyethylene - arrangement of the moisture barrier.
The whole technological process is divided into several stages.
Step 1.Determine the optimal place for the installation of the sump and allocate a site for the organization of ground after-treatment. Mark up the plot.
Step 2.Dig a pit for a tank and trenches for laying sewer pipes.
Step 3.At this stage, it is necessary to prepare a site for arranging removal of semi-purified liquid from the septic tank. Pit dimensions depend on the type of after-treatment system (drainage well, filtration field).
Step 4.Fill the pit for the storage tank with sand - the layer thickness is about 20-30 cm. Tamp the sand pillow.
Step 5.Pipeline trench with a sand bed and install sewer pipes. It is important to withstand a slight bias so that as the pipes are in operation they are not clogged.
Step 6.To prevent the pipes from deforming, it is desirable to fill them with gravel. This measure is relevant if the load is assumed at the site above the PVC pipeline. For example, arrangement of parking, playground or patio.
Step 7. Inspect the septic tank, lower it into the pit and check the evenness of the location - any distortions should be excluded.
Step 8.Connect the inlet and outlet connections, fill the tank with water by half and proceed to the backfill. The work is performed in stages, each layer is carefully tamped. For backfilling, you can use the ground or a dry mixture of soil, river or quarry sand and cement extracted from the foundation pit.
Organization of tertiary treatment of wastewater
A special feature of the Voskhod brand septic tank is the necessity of arranging additional filtration of waste liquid. Methods for the implementation of soil tertiary treatment:
- drainage well;
- filter ditches;
- filter field.
Drainage well.The option is suitable for home gardens with well drained soil (sandy, gravel, rubble). A discharge pipe is laid from the main cleaner, through which the liquid enters the well with filter components.
The construction is constructed of monolithic reinforced concrete, brick or stone. If necessary, additional lateral drainage at the bottom of the well (about 1 m) is distributed in the device, the total area of which is 10-12% of the total area of the walls. The outlet pipe from the septic tank is supplied to the installation at a distance of half a meter from the bottom filter. The depth of the well depends on the amount of waste entering it for processing.
Features of the drainage well:
- the conditional bottom of the structure should rise above the highest level of groundwater by at least 1 m;
- if while digging a trench at a depth of 2.5 m, sand, gravel deposits or similar soil with high filtration properties are not found, another method of soil purification should be preferred;
- the effectiveness of complex cleaning, coupled with ground processing - 98-100%.
An expensive, but quick and convenient way to set up an after-treatment systeminstallation of infiltrators:
If there is a reservoir or ravine near the suburban area, into which it is possible to organize the discharge of the purified liquid, arrangefilter ditches.
Their depth depends on the level of installation of the pipe exiting the septic tank. At the surface of the earth, the width of the ditch is 80-100 cm, and below it is 50 cm. The length of the ditch is selected on the basis of: 1 m trench for 60 liters of wastewater per day. The trench is filled with filtering material: sand, gravel, gravel.
Features of the design and operation of the system of soil tertiary treatment:
- “Perfoot tubes” are placed with a slope in the direction of flow of 2–3 mm per each linear meter;
- through the drain pipe purified water flows into the nearest ravine or reservoir;
- the size of the holes in the pipeline - 4-7 mm, perforation step - 10-20 cm;
- cleaning efficiency - up to 98%.
Underground filtration field.A network of drainage trenches equipped on a sand-gravel bed. In contrast to the filtering ditches, the perforated pipes of the fields - the drains are stacked in one tier.When it seeps through the holes, the water from the septic tank undergoes after-treatment, and then the purified liquid enters the environment.
The need for insulation of the septic tank and the pipeline
The standards and requirements for the installation of a plastic septic tank "Voskhod" imply year-round operation of the installation without the use of additional insulation materials.
The tank is immersed deep enough, which eliminates the icing of water. The network of sewer pipes is placed on a slope - this prevents the stagnation of water and the appearance of ice jams. In addition, the flow of wastewater and the fermentation process in the sump promotes heat.
However, even with the installation technology, there is a risk of emergency situations. Possible reasons:
- Seasonal use of sewage with periods of "stagnation" can cause freezing of the liquid in the reservoir. The problem is especially true for "country" septic tanks.
- The depth of soil freezing is averaged. There is no guarantee that the coming winter will not be very harsh.
- Local deformation of the soil due to frost heaving may affect the pipeline slope in a separate section. This is fraught with water stagnation and ice formation.
It is better to be safe and insulate the septic tank even at the stage of its installation. As a heat insulator suitable: mineral wool, expanded clay, foam and extruded polystyrene foam.
More qualitative material - expanded polystyrene. The minimum absorption of moisture and high strength made it popular for warming septic tanks.
Thermal insulation of the supply pipes is carried out with mineral wool or any pipe insulation. An alternative method is heating cables.
Rules for the operation and maintenance of a septic tank
To ensure efficient operation, prolong service and reduce the cost of cleaning the septic tank, it is important to observe the rules of its operation:
- The sewers transporting sewage should not be discharged: cement residues, construction waste, plastic bags, medicines (especially antibiotics), engine oil.
- For washing and washing dishes it is desirable to use biodegradable household cleaners. This product is marked "BR".
- To avoid clogging of pipes and problems with sludge pumping, water soluble toilet paper should be used.
To improve the degree of purification in the septic tank "Sunrise" you can add biological products. Concentrated products contain colonies of bacteria, accelerating the decomposition of organic matter. Important advantages of using additives: eliminating odor and reducing solid waste. Popular drugs: "Vodograi", "Microzim", "Biosept", "Doctor Robik" and "Sanex".
Timely cleaning of the septic tank extends the service life of the ground cleaning systems. With stable use of the cleaning complex, the complete replacement of filtering components (gravel and crushed stone) is performed once every 10 years.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Step-by-step installation of a septic tank in high groundwater conditions:
Septic Voskhod is an affordable and practical solution for organizing an autonomous sewer system. The device is distinguished by its simplicity and unpretentious service. Having studied the rules on the placement of the sump and understand the technological requirements for its installation, you can install the septic tank yourself, without the involvement of specialists.