Opportunistic infections are diseases,These are caused by a decrease in immunity and general resistance of the body. In healthy people, they do not arise, because the body is able to cope with many infectious agents.
Opportunistic infections often accompanysuch a disease as acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It should be noted that not AIDS itself is the cause of death, namely, the attachment of such infections.
Opportunistic infection may not occuronly in HIV-positive people, but also in people with severely weakened immunity. For example, chemotherapy with various forms of cancer can also significantly weaken the protective functions of the body.
Opportunistic infections with HIV are causedvarious viruses, bacteria or protozoa. However, especially serious danger is the development of fungal infections, most often caused by candidiasis (candidiasis) and aspergillas (aspergillosis).
Opportunistic infections includeherpes, candidiasis, human papillomavirus, cryptococcosis, isopsoriasis, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, lymphoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, tuberculosis. Consider the most common of them.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) - verya common infection, the development of which is caused by viruses, united under the name "human papillomavirus". It is quite easy to transfer HPV during sexual intercourse. The virus causes the development of genital warts, some types of this virus cause cervical cancer. There are no drugs for HPV at the present stage, there are only different methods of removing warts, treating dysplastic processes of the cervix and anus, which are caused by HPV.
Candidiasis is often localized in the oral cavity,larynx, lung and / or vagina. This disease often arises due to the fact that fungi constitute the natural microflora of the human body, and with a decrease in immunity they are activated and cause the development of candidiasis. He is treated with antifungal drugs, but often there are relapses.
Cryptococcal meningitis develops in the presence ofof CD4 cells below 50. The agent that causes it is the fungus Cryptococcus, which enters the human body upon inhalation of dust. Many people are exposed to this effect, but a healthy organism copes - and the disease does not develop. This kind of meningitis is not transmitted from person to person.
Pneumocystis pneumonia develops after ingestionthe microorganism Pneumocystis carinii, which lives in the environment everywhere. Distribution occurs by air. The occurrence of PCP occurs when there is an immune status in the patient below 200 cells / ml. Prevention and treatment are successful in this pathology, however, in the absence of therapy in the proper volume, a lethal outcome is possible.
Herpes Simplex causes a simple herpes virus: ulcers on the lips are formed, it is also possible that they appear on the genitals or anus. In HIV-positive, such rashes occur much more often and are more pronounced. Existing drugs against herpes are removed and prevented from manifesting it, but do not completely cure, as the circulation of the virus in the nervous tissue persists.
Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs with the use of semi-raw meat or from contact with cats. This disease is not transmitted through people and does not develop with a healthy immune system.
Opportunistic infections need to be treated with modern antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral drugs, sometimes for a very long period.