Jupiter: diameter, mass, magnetic field
Jupiter, whose diameter allows it to bein the first place in terms of magnitude in our solar system, has long been of interest to scientists. Its nature contains many unique nuances: the largest size and number of satellites, a significant magnetic field, a monstrous hurricane, raging throughout the centuries. It is an excellent degree of all Jupiter that forces specialists to try to solve the riddles of this planet.
Jupiter - a planet whose diameter at the equatoris about 143 884 km - is located at 778 million kilometers from our luminary. It is located in the fifth place from the Sun, being a gas giant. The composition of the atmosphere of Jupiter is very similar to our star, since most of it is hydrogen.
It is known that the planet is covered by the ocean. Only not water - it contains rarefied hydrogen, which has a very high temperature.
The planet rotates so fast that the diameterJupiter at the equator is greatly elongated. It is for this reason that incredibly violent storms are raging in these areas. Therefore, the appearance of the planet looks impressive - it is surrounded by atmospheric streams of different colors. Atmospheric formations within the clouds in the equatorial region are no less interesting - vortices and hurricanes are born here. Some of them are so huge and strong that they have not ceased for more than 300 years. The most famous vortex is the Great Red Spot, which exceeds the size of the Earth.
Jupiter possesses an incredibly powerful magnetic field. Its diameter is much larger than the planet itself. Partially the boundaries of the field go even beyond the orbit of Saturn. Currently, it is estimated that it is over 650 million kilometers.
In recent years, scientists have come to grips withstudying this giant. Some of them believe that both the characteristics of the magnetic field, and the size and composition of the planet make it a possible candidate for the new stars of our galaxy. They find confirmation of their theory also in the fact that the heat of the planet is not so much the reflected energy of the Sun, as much as its own, produced in the bowels of Jupiter.
The diameter and mass of Jupiter are incredibly huge. Everyone knows that the composition of the Sun is 99% of the total matter in our system. But the mass of Jupiter is only 1/1050 of the mass of the luminary. The giant is heavier than the Earth in 318 times (1.9 × 10²⁷ kg). The radius of the gas giant is 71,400 km, which exceeds the same parameter of our planet by 11.2 times. Considering how far Jupiter is from us, its diameter can not be measured exactly. Therefore, scientists admit that the difference in indicators can be several hundred kilometers.
Jupiter has many satellites. Currently, 63 planetary units of various diameters are open, however, scientists suggest that in fact there can be up to hundreds of them. The largest satellites are the so-called Galilean group: Io, Callisto, Europe and Ganymede. Even with good binoculars, you can observe these bodies. The remaining satellites are much smaller, among them there are even those whose radius does not exceed 4 kilometers. Most of these objects rotate at a considerable distance from the planet, without causing a special interest of scientists.
Jupiter, whose diameter has always made ita noticeable cosmic body in the sky, has attracted the attention of astronomers for a very long time. The first to do this was in 1610 Galileo. It was he who discovered the greatest companions of the giant and described his form.
At present, the most modern equipment has been attracted to the study of Jupiter: devices are sent to it and studied with the help of powerful telescopes, spectrometers and other scientific inventions.
The greatest contribution to the study of the planet was made by the apparatus"Galileo". He spent two years researching the gas giant and his companions, the first in history to enter the orbit of Jupiter. After the end of the mission, the device was sent to the object under study, the extremely high pressure of which simply crushed it. This was done out of fear that the device, having exhausted the fuel stock, would fall on one of the satellites of Jupiter, after entering there earth microorganisms.
At present, the arrival of an interplanetarystation "Juno", which has a large fuel reserve. It is planned that it will be located at a distance of up to 50 thousand kilometers from the planet, studying its structure, magnetic fields, gravity and other parameters. Scientists expect that this mission will allow them to learn more about the formation of Jupiter, the exact composition of its atmosphere and so on. Well, we can only wait and hope for the success of this event.