How to make an infrared floor heating do it yourself: installation and connection of the film floor
The system of infrared heat-insulated floor film type is one of the innovative and unique developments, which allows you to solve problems arising in the arrangement of heating housing.
How to choose the right components for the system and install an infrared heated floor with your own hands, let's take a closer look.
How does the IR system
Infrared floor heating is a rather complicated system, which cannot be made by yourself at home.
The system is based on a unique nanostructure, which is capable of generating infrared radiation, invisible to the human eye.
Film systems are made of strips of carbon paste - high-strength carbon fiber, which are hidden under the heat-resistant plastic film.All strips, the thickness of which does not exceed even ten millimeters, are located at an equidistant distance of 10-15 mm and are connected in parallel with each other by flat silver busbars protected by silver coating.
The core of the core systems consists of graphite-silver rods, inside which carbon material is laid. They are interconnected by stranded wires and sealed in a protective copper sheath. Systems are available in the form of separate cables or finished bays.
Infrared rays in such systems act rectilinearly, and therefore cause heating of not the surrounding air, but the objects located inside the premises: flooring, furniture, walls and the ceiling. Due to this property, the rate of infrared heating is much higher than traditional analogues - electrical and water systems.
The number of indisputable advantages of infrared film underfloor heating should include:
- Environmental friendliness.Infrared rays are similar in effect to sunlight and therefore have a beneficial effect on all living organisms. They have no side effect.
- Easy installation.The design features of the system allow at minimum cost and effort to produce high-quality installation, owning only the basic skills of construction work.
- Compatibility with different types of coverage.The laying of an infrared heat-insulated floor is allowed to be performed immediately “on dry” under carpet, parquet, linoleum or laminate.
Due to the fact that the heating elements in the film system are tightly laminated with a polymer layer, they are not afraid of random dents and punctures, as well as the effects of moisture. But even if one of the carbon bands is damaged due to the parallel connection scheme, the remaining elements will continue to work.
The thickness of the thermofilm does not reach even 5 millimeters, and therefore practically does not “eat up” the height of the room.Thanks to this, it can be safely installed under almost any coating. In addition, such a film is allowed to be placed on vertical surfaces, fixing to the walls and ceiling, providing zone heating of the room.
For this reason, the film material is laid only in those areas where there will not be large-sized appliances and furniture. It is worth using IR systems in wet areas with caution, as there is a risk of electric shock.
Electricity consumption for operating an infrared heated floor directly depends on the mode of operation of the system and the working area of the room.
Selection of system components
In addition to carbon heating strips, sealed in a lavsan film, the film floor system requires a thermostat equipped with a temperature sensor.
There are a lot of variants of film floors on the modern market. And they all have approximately the same characteristics: power consumption from 25 to 80 W / h, and operating temperature from 30 to 50 ° C.
On sale you can find two types of film systems:
- solid - in them the film is completely covered with carbonic material;
- striped - carbon material in them is applied to the surface in the form of strips 15-20 mm wide.
The difference between them is that in continuous systems the material is applied by rolling on the surface in the form of a paste, and in striped ones - by means of fragmentary spraying.
The thickness of the material can vary from two microns to 0.4 millimeters. Roll length is 50 meters.
There is an opinion that it is better to choose the thinnest films. But, as reviews show, the smaller the carbon fiber layer, the faster the system fails. Therefore, it is more expedient to acquire a material not thinner than 3 mm. For example, for countries in Europe and the United States, a material thickness of 0.338 mm is considered the best option.
Such systems are not cheap. The average price range of film infrared systems from leading manufacturers ranges from $ 20-25 per square meter.
Calculation of the required amount
Installation of a film floor with an infrared type of heating is carried out only on the useful area of the room.
The percentage of the covered area depends on whether the IR system acts as the main or additional heat source:
- 80% of the area - as the main heating;
- 40-50% of the area - as an addition to radiator heating.
To determine the total length of all lanes will help pre-drawn on the sheet layout of the system zones. Having calculated the length of each fragment and adding up their number, it will not be difficult to calculate the required total length of the coating.
In order to prevent premature failure of the floor system, it is necessary to distance from pipes and risers of central heating when laying out. Stacked bands should not intersect and overlap each other.
When placing fragments on the plan and calculating their length, also take into account that the length of each strip should be a multiple of 17-18 centimeters, since in these places are cut lines.
Thermostat to control temperature
The operation of the infrared system manages the thermostat.The temperature sensor included in the package is placed between the heating elements and connected to the device via the contacts. The sensor reads the temperature from the surface of the film and transmits the data to the thermostat, which, in turn, is triggered and starts the system to work.
Versions of modifications of regulators, differing in functionality, on the market today are presented a great many. All of them are conventionally divided into three types:
- Mechanical - equipped with keys and mechanical wheels and suitable for arranging small-area systems.
- Electronic - equipped with push-button controls and a display, applicable for small non-zoned rooms.
Programmable models are equipped with touch screens, with which you can set 4 time modes at once, thereby saving up to 50% of power consumption.
Temperature sensors, depending on the type of device and type of flooring, are of two versions.For soft coatings, they are available in compact plastic containers. For solid - in the form of larger elements, equipped with gel protection from the impact on the strip of adhesive compositions and the prevention of mechanical damage.
When choosing a device should focus on the power of the thermostat. It is calculated based on the fact that one square meter of film consumes on average 50-70 watts. To determine the required value of the indicator is multiplied by the size of the working area, covered with heating elements.
Low-power models operating from the network are often “sinned” in that in the event of a power failure they cannot resume operation on their own. Therefore, it is better to give preference to models in which the battery is provided.
Installation of infrared floor heating
Installing an IR system for a particular coating has its own characteristics. So, planning to use soft materials such as linoleum or carpet as a finishing coating, as a layer between the heating strips and it should be laid sheets of fiberboard or plywood. A hard layer will protect the film from "injury" due to pushing the coating with heavy furniture legs or female heels.
In any case, the installation of the infrared floor heating system is carried out in several stages.
Purchase of materials and tools
In addition to the infrared film itself, it is also necessary to purchase a rolled insulation material, as well as metallized or one-sided construction tape for its fixation.The film itself is attached to the base with double-sided tape.
For the work will require a set of tools:
- Bulgarian, equipped with a disk for a stone;
- a knife or scissors;
- pliers or pliers;
- construction mixer;
- notched trowel;
- wide brush;
- capacity for mixing the solution.
If you have not yet drawn up a layout at the stage of choosing a material, this must be done now, taking into account not only the size of the room, but the width of the bands used.
The location of the films can be both longitudinal and transverse. The best option is to choose based on material savings. But still, experts recommend placing strips in length. This minimizes the number of connection points.
Preparation of the base
When preparing the foundation for the installation of the IR system, it is not at all necessary to dismantle the old coating. Dismantling is required only if the base is badly damaged and the surface is “dotted” with deep cracks and gouges.
According to the norms, the allowable difference in the heights of the base base for the film system is only 0.2-0.3 cm for each running meter, regardless of the direction of the control rail or building level applied to the surface.
Technology laying IR system involves the arrangement of the insulating layer, the main task of which is to prevent heat from leaking through the floor plates, thereby increasing the efficiency of the system.
As a heater is best suited:
- Izolon or Penofol - rolled insulation foam polyethylene. They have excellent waterproofing qualities, because in the process of foaming, closed, non-impermeable cells are formed;
- Cork substrate - compressed particles of cork wood mixed with suberin binder.
When arranging heated floors in priority of substrate with lavsan metallized or foiled sheath. It enhances heat transfer due to its own reflective effect.
The structure of these materials will prevent the absorption of moisture, performing the function of a waterproofing agent, and the reflecting surface will direct the generated heat directly into the room, and not to the underlying floor.
The substrate is spread over the entire area of the room against the walls. The joints of the strips laid on the floor are fastened together by painting or aluminum tape. If the thickness of the material is small, you can fasten the strips laid with a small overlap by building brackets.
Laying film system
In accordance with the markup, the film is cut into separate fragments, taking into account that the maximum length of a single panel should not exceed eight meters. Cutting can be done with scissors or a knife. The cut fragments of strips are successively laid out on a substrate in accordance with the established scheme.
The cuts of the film are placed face up or down in accordance with the paragraphs of the manual from the manufacturer. Strictly according to the instructions, the bands of the IR system are placed. For example, the stripes of the Caleo film floor are stacked with a side overlap so that there is a gap of 1 cm between adjacent copper tires.
If the brand, manufacturers of which are recommended to lay the strip without overlap and with a more impressive distance between the tires. When laying it is not allowed to bend carbonic strips at an angle of 90 °, as this may damage the part of the system.
If necessary, the strip is cut around the perimeter of the room, making cuts in places strictly marked with a dotted line on the film. Approximate dotted lines for incision are usually located every 18 cm.
For fixing the film to the surface using double-sided tape. This solution allows you to prevent the shift of elements relative to the markup and each other.In the process of laying strips of infrared floor heating it is important to prevent damage to the material, which often happens when the tools used during installation are accidentally dropped on them.
System connection diagram
Each strip is equipped with a copper clip, which is securely connected to a conductor made of the same material. To connect the terminal, it is necessary to separate the area of 8-10 mm from the cut from the lamination, and gently exfoliate the silver and copper bus on the edge.
The contact is inserted strictly in the middle of the end of the conductive bus so that its one side touches it, and the second adjoins the inner side of the film. Contacts are crimped with pliers, trying to prevent arcing.
Current-carrying wires with the “tails” of the wires stripped by 10-12 mm are brought to the contact terminals and connected: to one - “0”, to the other - “phase”.Connected terminals gently clamp with pliers or pliers. If it is possible to apply soldering, the wires to the tires can be simply soldered, and the joints should be sealed with insulation.
After connecting each film fragment, it is necessary to check the fixation of the clamp by slightly jerking it. It should not move relative to the film.
Connecting the bands is done using a parallel circuit. This means that the wiring will be made only on one side. For “powering” they use multi-strand copper wires with a section of 1.5 sq. Mm.
The connections of the clamp to the wires after crimping with pliers, as well as the cut sections of the copper bus on both sides, are necessarily insulated with vinyl-mastic adhesive tape, which is always included in the system.
At the free ends of the wires attached to all sections of the heating film, measure the resistance of the circuit. Ideally, the calculated load value should be 20% lower than that stated by the manufacturer of the selected thermostat model. If the resulting load corresponds to the maximum allowable rate of the selected thermostat, proceed to connect it.
Mounting control device
In order for the thermostat to work properly, a thermal sensor is fixed on the underside of the heating sheet with adhesive tape. Its installation is carried out with the involvement of the 16-mm corrugated tube, which is included in the original equipment.
To prevent a hillock in the installation point of the thermal sensor, it is recommended to make shallow grooves in the base and the insulating layer. The location of the device is chosen as close as possible to the thermostat. The distance from the wall should be at least 30 cm.
There are no special requirements for the installation of a thermostat. It can be placed in any accessible place, hidden from direct sunlight. However, choose a place to install it in advance, because strips of the film system are better placed with contacts to the wall on which the regulating device will be mounted. This method reduces the length of the connecting wires.
The installation option can also be any:
- external - in which the device is attached directly to the surface of the wall;
- hidden - involves the creation of a recess in which the device will be hidden.
To perform hidden installation in the wall using a grinder or a perforator, make grooves with a depth of 20 mm, into which electrical wiring is placed.
The technology of installation of the thermostat is not much different from the process of installing a conventional electrical outlet. For the arrangement of the “nest” in the wall, with the help of a crown, they make a niche into which they submerge the underside. Place the device at a height of 80-90 cm from the floor level.
Having connected the thermostat, it only remains to connect the free end of the temperature sensor placed into the corrugated pipe to the sensor terminals.
Test run the IR system
After the installation and connection of the infrared heat-insulated floor is completed, it is necessary to check the operation of the system. Before starting, check the reliability of the insulation of the connection points. First, the test is performed using a tester. System indicators should correspond to those specified by the manufacturer.
After starting the system, you should carefully check the uniformity of heating of each element. If problems are found on individual fragments, they are eliminated or replaced by sections of strips with new ones.
If it is heated evenly when turned on, and the contacts do not “smell” and do not spark, you can proceed to the installation of the flooring. It is better to save the plan itself for laying the IR system by attaching it to the passport of the product or sketching it on the back of the warranty documentation.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Mounting kit for system installation:
Substrate construction and installation of heating strips:
Installation of the sensor and thermostat:
The system of film type is not complicated in execution. Therefore, even without the relevant skills, installation can be done in just one day. The main thing - strictly adhere to the technology of installation. This will protect against the occurrence of an emergency and premature decommissioning of the system.