How to lay the floor: from the choice of lumber to the final processing
If you decide to make a wooden floor with your own hands, then this will require some theoretical knowledge to complete the installation correctly.
Choice of quality lumber
The most durable wood for flooring in the house is considered to be Siberian larch and oak. They have all the necessary qualities for durable and reliable service. Soft floors are used very rarely for the floor, since their properties do not allow the finished product to cope with the expected loads. Pine, spruce or fir can be used except for the construction of reel, rough coating for the finishing material.
The main criteria when choosing a quality product:
- The wood must be completely dried, but not dried. The raw product will subsequently lose its shape, and gaps will form between the floorboards during natural drying.
- On sawn timber of the highest grades there should be a minimum number of visible defects or, if it is grade 1, flaws should not be present at all.
- Purchase lumber is better with a small margin: 10% -15% more.
Choose lumber should be from the same batch. This will ensure that all products undergo the same treatment, have identical humidity, color and pattern. Find high-quality raw materials from larch on the website of the manufacturer of lumber "Madera".
For flooring, it is better to use tongue-and-groove timber that does not need additional sanding. You should also decide on the type of floor boards. Standard products from the array, perhaps the most familiar. Depending on the expected load, the thickness of the boards is selected. The most optimal is from 20 to 40 mm. For grooved - from 36 to 38 mm.
The width of the material is determined based on its moisture content: the higher it is, the board should already be. 100 mm is considered suitable parameters, but if there is no certainty that the tree dries out properly, you can take the product a little wider - 180-200 mm.
The parquet board, unlike an array, has grooves from all directions, but not from two. The length of such a product is 0.5-2 m, and the recommended thickness is 18-25 mm.Glued parquet board is identical in size and appearance with a wooden massif and at the same time retains all its operational qualities. It consists of at least three layers that are glued together under great pressure. The top layer is usually of valuable breeds, and the lower ones are cheaper. Therefore, the total cost of such material is rather small.
It is worth remembering that if you buy thickened products (from 40 mm), you should not save money by choosing raw material. Raw materials that have not passed the chamber drying can be deformed so much that the hammered screws will “fly out” back.
Before you begin installation work, the material must be acclimatized. He should get used to the humidity and temperature of the room. It's enough to leave the board in the room for a few days.
For a plank floor, the base can be practically any: logs, concrete floors, old wooden floor, plywood on the screed, floor decks. The method of mounting the boards is selected depending on their type. Unpunched lumber is attached to logs with self-tapping screws at an angle of 90⁰ to the base.
The tongue-and-groove board can be laid in the same way or use the method in which nails are masked.
Main flooring rules:
- the distance between the screws should be 25-30 cm;
- holes for fasteners are drilled in advance so that the material does not crack;
- floorboards should fit tightly in both the transverse and longitudinal directions;
- the gap between the walls and the coating must be at least 7-10 mm.
Also lumber can be fastened with a special glue. Depending on the length of the boards, it will be either an epoxy compound (up to 50 cm) or polyurethane (from 50 cm and longer). The glue mounting algorithm is identical to the parquet laying. The only difference is that the floorboard should be fixed with self-tapping screws.
Board processing rules
The finishing stage will be the treatment of the flooring. This will give the tree additional protection from external influences and at the same time improve its aesthetic appearance.
The first thing you should pay attention to is how deeply the nails are sunk into the board. Hats should be a couple of millimeters pressed into the surface. The formed recesses due to the screws must be covered with sealant or putty on wood.
All processing materials must be matched to the color of wood
The next step will be applying a starting varnish coating. Its drying time depends on the moisture of the raw material. If more than 12%, then it will take about 3-4 months. If the boards are dry, 3 weeks will be enough.
If the coating of soft wood, ordinary parquet lacquer will not work. Under high pressure, the floor sags, and the frozen varnish will not be able to repeat the shape of the dent during loading and will simply crack. For such cases, sold a special coating.