How a ceramic chimney is constructed: the specifics of the installation of a ceramic flue duct
Among the smoke removal systems, the undisputed leader is the ceramic chimney. This is a modern and reliable device with which you can effectively organize the work of your heating device.
Installation of such a chimney is not too complicated, although inexperienced builders should seek advice from a good master.
Features of ceramic structures
The use of ceramic components for the installation of the chimney is an ingenious solution in its own way. Baked clay is resistant to virtually any temperature, so these chimneys can be used for boilers running on liquid or solid fuels. This feature of the material makes it versatile in use. Especially for low-temperature boilers developed a separate version of such a chimney.
Burnt clay endures abrupt changes in temperature with amazing stability, the service life of such a chimney reaches three decades. One of the main advantages of ceramics is a high level of fire safety. On the smooth walls of the structure accumulates a minimum amount of soot and other foreign products, which significantly reduces the risk of fire.
The ceramic walls of the chimney perfectly retain heat and resist the effects of moisture condensed on the walls, even if this moisture contains acids or other corrosive substances. With proper installation, combustion products never enter the room through random gaps. Smoke is removed completely and with a high degree of efficiency.
Ceramics not only prevents the transfer of heat to surrounding objects, but also accumulates a portion of thermal energy. Such structures can be placed inside and outside the building.In the latter case, you need to take care of additional structural insulation. Private housing is practically the only area of application for ceramic chimney systems. They should not be installed in high-rise buildings.
It is worth remembering that such devices compared to their counterparts have a rather high price. Another problem that may arise with a ceramic chimney is a ban on bending. Ceramic chimney should be installed strictly upright. If this is not possible, then you will have to give preference to another type of chimney.
The ceramic chimney construction weighs a lot. That is why, if the weight of the chimney exceeds 400 kg, it will be necessary to establish a separate foundation for it, which should not be associated with the general basis of the structure. However, on monolithic foundations such installation is allowed, but still it is necessary to correlate the increased load with the total bearing capacity of the foundation.
If you plan to install a ceramic chimney not on the first floor, but above, you need to calculate the load and compare it with the carrying capacity of the ceiling.
The installation of a ceramic structure looks relatively simple, but it still requires effort and a very careful attitude. If the steel structure can be assembled literally in one day, then it will take two or three days to assemble ceramics of similar length. In addition, such a chimney can not be disassembled and installed in a new place, but steel systems are suitable for reuse.
Device and regulatory requirements
Chimneys of this type consist of separate blocks, which are assembled as a constructor. A special heat-insulating layer is mounted on top of the ceramics, all of which is enclosed in a lightweight concrete frame. In addition to the basic units, other elements are needed for the installation of such a construction, without which no chimney can do:
- chimney base;
- tee for inspection and cleaning structures;
- adapter for connecting the heating device;
- device for collecting condensate.
The chimney must be high enough to create good traction. The optimum height is five meters or higher. Even if the pipe turns out to be much larger, there is no need to worry about excessive thrust. At high altitude, the gases that move through the pipe have cooled down a bit, and this will increase their weight, and the speed of movement will slow down.
A ceramic chimney should rise not less than 50 cm above the ridge of the roof or its parapet. In order to accurately determine the maximum length of the pipe protruding above the roof, a conventional straight line is drawn from its ridge at an angle of 10 degrees down from the horizontal rail. The chimney must be above this conditional level. If the pipe goes onto a flat roof, it should rise to 120 cm.
With regard to the adapter that connects the chimney and the heating boiler, it should be remembered that its diameter should be the same as the size of the chimney or larger. Narrowing of the structure at the connection point is unacceptable.When installing a condensate tank, remember that you need a siphon with a length of about 15 cm to create a ten-centimeter water seal.
Chimney installation procedure
High fire safety of ceramic chimneys allows you to successfully use them in buildings made of natural wood. It is necessary to reckon with the possibility of shrinkage of the structure. Therefore, in such buildings, for example, in residential buildings or baths, it is not necessary to firmly fasten the chimney to the roof or ceilings.
If the fixing is rigid, this may cause damage to the chimney structure later on. When installing any chimney should follow the manufacturer's recommendation, but pay special attention to compliance with fire safety rules. During the installation process, you will have to perform the following steps:
- To conduct a series of preparatory activities.
- Install the chimney base.
- Install an adapter for connecting to the boiler and a tee for maintenance of the structure.
- Install chimney.
- To carry out a covering of a design by the heat-insulating materials.
- Fasten and decorate the outer part of the chimney.
Exact adherence to the technology of installation of ceramic chimneys will make them reliable, safe and resistant to extraneous exposure. But negligence and blemishes can lead not only to structural damage, but also to the occurrence of a fire. The optimal time for the installation of chimney construction - before the start of decorative decoration of residential premises, as well as before the laying of the roofing pie.
Preparation and installation of the base
Before starting work you need to purchase all the necessary elements and materials. To do this, it is necessary to calculate the length of the chimney according to the above rules, as well as to determine the parameters of the base of the structure. The connection point of the boiler pipe and the adapter must match exactly. If this moment is not thought out, it may be necessary to completely redo all the work in the future.
Confusion in the calculations may occur in the case when the finishing floor at the installation site of the boiler has not yet been laid. When calculating the height of the boiler connection to the chimney, it is necessary to accurately determine the height of the so-called “floor cake” in order to take these data into account when determining the height of the base for the chimney.
The base under the chimney is made of cement-sand mixture, on which the adapter is installed to connect the heating device. This element has a groove, which will further remove condensed moisture. Care must be taken at this point in order not to damage an important node during the installation process.
The position of the adapter must be strictly aligned horizontally with the help of the building level. In addition to the condensate tank at the bottom, there is also a supply air grille through which the structure is ventilated. The foundation for a ceramic chimney is done in much the same way as any other foundation.It is poured with concrete, from above you need to cover the structure with a layer of waterproofing, for example, roofing material.
Installation of tee and pipe
For further installation of the ceramic elements of the chimney will need a special solution that is resistant to acid. It is prepared from a special dry mixture, which is mixed with water in a ratio of 7: 1 and thoroughly stirred until smooth. The solution should be used within one and a half hours, no more.
Adding water to an already prepared mixture is strictly prohibited. The tee, intended for maintenance of the structure, is installed on the connection pipe to the boiler, at the interface it is carefully lubricated with this solution. Next on the tee consistently install the rest of the elements of the chimney.
The bottom of the next element is always inserted into the top of the previous part of the design. All joints are sequentially coated with a solution. Excess bonding compound is carefully removed with a damp sponge.During assembly work, the position of the structure is constantly checked with a plumb line.
The important point of fire safety during the installation of the chimney is the position of the joints of individual elements. It is highly undesirable that the junction is in the thickness of the ceiling. Unfortunately, to avoid such an arrangement is not always possible. In this situation, additional measures will be needed to prevent a possible fire.
The junction of the ceramic elements of the chimney, which falls into the ceiling, should be additionally hidden with the help of non-combustible materials. Part of the chimney that runs through the attic requires special attention. If there is no heating in this room, it is necessary to additionally heat this section of the chimney.
Insulation and concrete blocks
For insulation of the ceramic structure, special sleeves are made of heat insulating and fire resistant material. The trim should be installed in parallel with the installation of ceramic elements.Parts of the material are connected with a sealant.
For its application is most convenient to use a special gun. The sealing compound is applied both to the edges of the insulating material and to the upper edge of the ceramic element. As you install, excess sealant will protrude from the outside. It is best to remove them before the sealant is completely frozen.
For additional insulation of the ceramic chimney, cement-bonded chipboards, fire-resistant gypsum boards, etc. can be used. It is important to take into account the characteristics of the room in which the structure is located.
For example, some materials, such as the fireproof plasterboard or glass magnesite already mentioned, can emit substances hazardous to humans when heated. The use of such materials is not recommended in baths, steam rooms and other similar premises.
Lightweight concrete blocks are installed on top of the ceramic core with a sleeve of insulation. Lightweight concrete, which is enclosed in a ceramic pipe with a sleeve of insulation, needs additional reinforcement. It is performed with the help of metal rods, which are inserted into special openings inside the blocks and filled with liquid cement mortar.
The holes for the reinforcement are made in such a way that not one but two rods fit inside. One of them must protrude from the block not less than 100 mm. This protruding part is mounted in the next block, this overlap can significantly increase the strength of the structure. Before installation of the ceramic chimney, the rods are cut into 150 cm pieces and inserted as needed.
Fastening and decorating the outside
The outer part of the pipe of a ceramic chimney should be reinforced, especially if the structure rises above the roof more than one and a half meters. Some manufacturers of such chimneys supply special rods for which holes, as already mentioned, are provided in the construction.
The rods are simply inserted into these holes and poured with a liquid solution. If such rods are missing or there is no possibility to purchase them, you can use steel bar for 10 mm for the same purpose. In this case, it is necessary to observe the quality of the grout so that there are no voids inside the holes.
As an alternative, use external reinforcement. To do this, you need to make a welded "case" for the chimney from a steel angle and tape. Finally, it is possible to reinforce with a layer of reinforced concrete.
The outer part of the pipe must not only be strengthened, but also insulated. For decorating the chimney, which rises above the roof, you can use any non-combustible materials: brickwork or its imitation, tile, slate, etc.
Useful installation tips
One of the main rules for the installation of ceramic chimneys: only whole elements are suitable for installation. The presence of chips, cracks or any other damage is unacceptable. Do not try to seal the damaged place with a sealant or something like that. This is a dangerous solution, since damage inside the structure can fail at any time and cause a fire.
Therefore, each item must be checked at the time of purchase, as well as immediately prior to installation.If even minor damage is found, a replacement should be made. The base for the adapter should be perfectly flat and horizontal. To achieve this, experienced builders use a level, and the surface of the base is trimmed with some even material, for example, tiles, porcelain stoneware, etc.
Maintenance of chimneys of this type is not difficult to perform. It is necessary to check the presence of traction, clean the pipes from soot, monitor the integrity of all structural elements. Usually these operations are performed twice a year, but if there is reason to doubt the normal functioning of the chimney, servicing activities can be performed unplanned. Although with proper installation problems with such structures practically do not arise.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
This video clearly shows the process of installing a ceramic chimney: from unpacking the factory kit to finishing the outer part:
If you need to install a gate in the ready-made construction, this master class will help you to carry out all the operations correctly:
Here you can find detailed video installation instructions from the manufacturer of TONA Tec Iso systems (Germany):
The quality and reliability of ceramic chimneys explains the growing popularity of structures of this type. However, one should not forget that every stage of installation of such a system must be executed correctly and as thoroughly as possible. It is better for novice amateur stove-workers to entrust this important task to specialists in order not to spoil expensive components and not to endanger their home.