Forming and ascertaining experiment: description and features of conducting
Experiment in psychology is the main methodscientific knowledge. With its help, changes in the behavior of a person (or a group of individuals) in a situation of systematic management of those factors that determine it are investigated. To achieve the goal, the researcher needs to create specific conditions for their appearance.
An essential feature of the experiment is a clear and rigid selection of a particular studied factor. A prerequisite is the registration of the appearing changes.
But in psychology, naturally, it is impossible to achieveabsolute isolation. That is why the selection of the factor is carried out only by selecting, as well as comparing and studying the two groups of respondents, two situations and the like.
Types of experiments
Several parameters can be distinguished on the basis of which different types of this psychological-pedagogical method are distinguished.
First, the form of the organization stands outnatural and laboratory experiment. The second species is usually carried out under artificial conditions, which are designed to ensure the exceptional purity of the results obtained.
The natural experiment is carried out asrule, in ordinary, standard for the test conditions. Its essential disadvantage is the mandatory presence of uncontrolled factors. But their influence can not be established, and also quantified.
Secondly, the goal is a formulating and ascertaining experiment. Let's try to understand the basic nuances of their separation.
The ascertaining experiment is aa psychological method that establishes the existence of a definite and obligatory phenomenon or fact. But to achieve this goal, it must meet certain requirements. Thus, an experiment can become ascertainable only if the researcher is faced with the task of identifying the existing state, as well as the level of formation of a certain property, or the studied factor. Therefore, the priority level for the study is the actual level in the development of the selected parameter in the respondent, or the group of subjects. This is what determines the purpose and tasks of this method. The ascertaining experiment has the following purpose: measuring the existing level of development, and also obtaining the initial material for organizing further research, which forms the experiment.
This method is also called training andwhich aims to actively form certain parameters in the mental development of a person, levels of activity and so on. The forming experiment is usually used in the study of certain ways of personality development. This is provided with the help of a complex of sciences. So, for example, when raising a child, it will be necessary to synthesize psychological knowledge with pedagogical searches.
The goal of the forming experiment is: training in knowledge and skills; development of skills and certain qualities of personality.
But that he had a positive result, the experimenter and the method itself will be given specific requirements:
- A theoretical elaboration of the concepts of psychological parameters singled out in the study is needed, which, in fact, will be formed.
- The course and the program of the experiment must be clearly planned.
- In the process of work, it is necessary to take full account of the existing factors in real learning, which influence the formation of the studied phenomena in the psyche.
The scientist must be able to correctly choose, in accordance with the goals of the research, the method that he needs: ascertaining experiment, laboratory, forming, or natural.