Degree of protection of electrical equipment IP: what means, decoding
Many have seen on the surface of the packaging of lamps, sockets and other devices marking with the initial letters "IP". But few people think about why it is needed, and just do not pay attention to it. In fact, this important designation indicates the degree of protection of ip from the influence of external factors, and it must comply with GOST and PUE when choosing equipment.
What does IP labeling mean?
Interpretation of the abbreviated letter “IP” in translation means the degree of protection against penetration. In addition to letters, the marking contains two numbers indicating the class of the shell, which serves to protect equipment from external influences of dust, moisture and solid objects. Similarly, the class of the shell indicates the degree of protection of a person against the impact of a current while touching it. This classification displays GOST 14254-96.
The protection class of the shell is determined by testing.They indicate how the equipment case protects mechanical and current-carrying elements from moisture and solid particles penetrating to them. Even during the tests reveal the resistance of the shell to intense effects in different conditions.
If you go back to the familiar pair of numbers, the decoding of the first indicates the degree of protection of the shell from exposure to solid objects, and the second from moisture. But marking these numbers is not limited. After them can stand one or two letters. In some cases, if the degree of protection is uncertain, the numbers are replaced by the letter “X”. Take, for example, an appliance with the label "IPX0". It indicates an uncertain degree of protection. But after the last digit there may be another letter, for example, “IPX1D”. It serves as an index for additional information.
First digit designation
As already mentioned, the first digit indicates the degree of protection of the shell against the penetration of solid objects. This also includes the possibility of penetration of a certain part of the body, for example, a finger or hand. The standing first “0” indicates a complete lack of protection, which implies open access to dangerous equipment nodes. The degree of protection is indicated by numbers from 0 to 6.
To make the decoding clearer, we consider each indicator separately:
- "1" - indicates the restriction of the touch of the back of the hand or the penetration of a solid object the size of 5 cm or more;
- “2” - the protection will not allow penetration of a finger or an object from 1.25 cm in size;
- “3” - protects dangerous assemblies from tools and other objects in the hand, larger than 2.5 mm in size;
- “4” - indicates the impossibility of penetration of solid particles larger than 1 mm;
- “5” indicates partial dust protection;
- "6" - the highest degree of dust resistance.
In addition, the numbers from 4 to 6 indicate the impossibility of reaching the dangerous parts of the equipment with thin wire in the hand of a person.
The designation of the second digit
It is time to consider the second digit of the marking, indicating the protection of the equipment from the negative effects of moisture. This value has a larger range from 0 to 8. As in the first case, 0 indicates the complete absence of protection. Further enumeration is incremental, which reflects a specific example:
- “1” - small drops of water falling vertically on the equipment shell will not damage its nodes;
- "2" - similarly fallen drops of water do not penetrate the shell when it slopes up to 15about;
- "3" - The case is able to protect the working components of the equipment from rainwater, even if the drops fall at an angle of 60 °;
- “4” - randomly flying drops from any angle do not pose a danger to equipment;
- "5" - a jet of water falling without pressure does not penetrate the shell. Surfaces of devices with such designation can be washed;
- "6" - the shell will withstand falling water under high pressure. Even sea water inside will not damage the operation of the nodes;
- "7" - it is safe to dive under water for a short time;
- "8" - the shell will withstand a long stay of the equipment under water.
For a better definition of the degree of protection, there is a table with the specified all parameters:
Let's take a look at an example of how the digits of electrical equipment are deciphered:
- Take the power cabinet labeled IP32. The case will protect a person from accidental contact with electrical components and prevent the penetration of solid objects larger than 2.5 mm in size. However, wire 1 mm thick can penetrate inside. The second number indicates the safety of water droplets falling on the cabinet, even if it is mounted relative to them at an angle of 15about;
- and here, for example, the plastic box KMPN 2 / 9-2, intended for the installation of RCDs or automatic devices, has IP31 protection. The first digit indicates a similar degree of protection, as with the example of a power cabinet. The second number says that it will only protect the internal RCDs from small, vertically falling splashes of water.
In general, everything is clear with the numbers, it remains to find out what the decoding of additional letters means.
Additional and auxiliary designations
Immediately after the numerical designation may be an additional letter. There are only four of them. Each letter describes the degree of protection of a person against penetration to live parts of electrical equipment or dangerous mechanical components. If you carefully understand, the additional letter plays the same role as the first digit, only it is intended for a detailed explanation.
There is a table by which you can see the decoding of additional letters:
Behind the extra there may be an auxiliary letter. There are only three of them. Previously, the fourth one was used - W, but now it is not used according to GOST. For electrical equipment, these letters are needed to indicate reference information and test parameters. Decryption of letters can be found in the table:
In the absence of additional or auxiliary designations, the letters in the marking are not replaced by anything, but simply absent.
Degree of protection according to PUE and GOST
Before installation of electrical equipment, it is necessary to find out its degree of protection according to PUE, TU or GOST. In other words, it is necessary to decide, for example, what kind of outlets and fixtures are allowed in the bathroom.
PUE is the main document of the safe use of electrical equipment. It displays the rules for electrical installations. Hence the abbreviated name of the EIR. The rules state that:
- used electrical equipment must comply with GOST or TU;
- the design, method of installation of electrical equipment and characteristics of the insulation of wires must meet all the requirements of the EMP;
- electrical equipment and structures combined with it must be protected from negative external influences.
So, the EMP has been sorted out, and as for the other standards, the international index IEC 60529 or GOST 14254-96 just indicates the degree of protection denoted by IP. This GOST applies to electrical equipment with a voltage not exceeding 72.5 kV. On the territory of the Russian Federation GOST R 51330.20-99 is valid.
Ip bathroom electrical equipment
Guided by the standards of GOST, PUE and data tables, we can conclude that the bathroom requires the use of lamps, sockets and switches labeled with IP44. This class corresponds to a socket with lockable doors. Electrical appliances forks in the bathroom should also be of the same class.
As for the wall lamps for the bathroom, their degree should not be less than IP44, but it is better to use appliances with IP55 protection. Since all evaporation in the bathroom rises, the marking of ceiling lights must comply with IP65. The higher the “IP” of luminaires and other electrical equipment for the bathroom, the safer and safer they are to use.
Despite the fact that the degree of protection ip is easy to decipher, it is better to entrust the planning of the installation of electrical equipment to professionals.