Cultivating garlic: varieties with a description, choice, features of cultivation
Garlic - the culture present in the binsalmost every mistress, has been known since ancient times. This is evidenced by the dried heads of the plant found in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, the characteristic smell and taste of which, formed by organic sulfides (thioethers), is difficult to confuse with anything. Pythagoras called this culture "king of seasonings."
Garlic as an integral part of the dishes of world cuisine
It is hard to imagine the dishes of modern cuisine without the presence of garlic, whose historical homeland is Western and South Asia.In food, pre-treatedhard peel denticles, which in number of several pieces (more often from 4 to 11) form an onion; Also suitable for use are arrows and leaves of young plants. Possessing antibacterial, immunostimulating, antiseptic action, garlic is widely used in medicine; it normalizes blood pressure, lowers cholesterol in blood, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, is an excellent preventive against strokes.
Cultivation of garlic on the plot
The process of growing garlic is often notgives the trucker some special trouble. In general, the seed material is produced on its own, by dividing bulbs into teeth. As a planting stock it is recommended to use garlic, obtained in the current year. Any gardener is always interested in obtaining high yields, so he tries to plant proven, best-selling varieties, the main features of which are the shape of the bulb, the presence of the arrow, the number of teeth, the color of the scales of teeth and bulbs.
Garlic of two kinds is distinguished: winter and spring.
Characteristics of spring garlic
Spring garlic is planted early in spring, asreadiness of the soil. The use of the teeth, cooled to the moment of planting in a month, causes a large bulb to be obtained. Placement of teeth, the average mass of which is usually 2 grams (from a bulb weighing not less than 15-20 grams), in the row is made at a distance of 5-6 cm, the width of rows between them is 15-20 cm.
Unlike winter varieties, spring garlic inmore needs irrigation, because the latter gets enough moisture due to the melting of the snow. Watering the culture is recommended every 7-10 days, depending on the weather conditions. Garlic care includes regular weeding, weed management and top dressing, carried out at the end of June; just at this time, the bulb branching begins.
Cleaning of spring garlic is done with a masslodging of dried leaves (more than 75% of the total). Storage of spring garlic is carried out at a low temperature, which determines the minimum consumption of nutrients for respiration, preservation of tight teeth and protection from diseases. For long-term storage, it is necessary to bookmark well-dried, dense bulbs.
Varieties of spring garlic
Spring varieties do not shoot in advantage. The most popular among truck farmers are:
- Degtyarsky.Optimum for growth on large areas,is popular in household plots. Medium-ripened, characterized by light green leaves, the average length of which is about 37-40 cm. The bulb has a round-flat shape and under favorable growing conditions can reach 38 grams, having the number of teeth - 18. Scales - reddish white with some strokes. This spring garlic shooter does not form, to drought and frost is stable. Flesh is characterized by a semi-acute taste, white color, dense consistency. The average yield from 10 square meters is 3 kilograms. Product shelf life is good; at a humidity of not more than 80% and a temperature of 10-20 degrees it is possible to store about 10 months.
- Gulliver- a large variety of garlic that can be planted inwinter and spring: the amount of harvested crop is practically the same. The maturation period is mid-late, the vegetation period is 87-98 days. Garlic variety Gulliver large enough: the width of the leaf is more than 4 centimeters at a length of 55 centimeters. The average weight of garlic heads is from 90 to 120 grams; while observing all the agrotechnics of cultivation, the weight of individual specimens can reach 250 grams or more. Scales of the bulb are dirty-gray; the number of teeth, characterized by dense white pulp, 3-5 pieces. Harvesting is carried out in July. Can be planted as a winter crop. Has high storage performance.
- Yelenovsky.Relatively new variety, considered the most promising for industrial cultivation. Garlic varieties Yelenovsky can be used for winter planting.
It does not shoot, the medium-ripened, is characterized by a dense bulb of round-flat shape. Vegetation period is 110-115 days (from the appearance of the first shoots to harvesting).
Winter garlic: the characteristics of growing
Varieties of winter garlic are planted in the winter,characterized by resistance to frost and good adaptation to weather conditions. Most of them shoot. Planting of winter garlic is made in late September - early October. Early planted garlic will start to germinate, late planted - it will freeze. When planting, use sunny open spaces, without the close presence of groundwater. A plant planted in partial shade will not give the expected acute taste and large size of the fruit. Soil for planting is recommended sandy loam or loamy, not heavy, well fertilized; so before planting in the preparation of beds, it is recommended to add rotted manure or quality compost.It is worth knowing that good predecessors forof this culture are legumes, cabbage, cucumbers, pumpkin. After potatoes, tomatoes and onions for a high yield, one should not hope. Also, you should not plant garlic in its original place before 3 years later, in order to save it from pests and diseases.
The best varieties of winter garlic: Lubasha
A fairly new variety that has collected all thethe best qualities inherent in this culture. This high frost resistance, excellent resistance to drought, keeping quality with the preservation of quality for about 10 months. The oiliness and the content of specific esters clearly distinguish the sort of garlic of Lubasha, which is characterized by arming, from a number of similar varieties.With a stem height of 1-1.2 meters, the weight of the bulb(round-flat in shape and white, with light purple stripes, coloration) averages 80-120 grams (there were specimens of up to 370 grams); teeth, which are assembled in a unit of 4 to 7 pieces, weighs 15-20 grams. Color of dense leaves, which are located semi-vertically - dark green, the length of the leaf is up to 45 centimeters with an average width of 2 centimeters. Typical average degree of wax coating. Garlic varieties Lubasha is famous for its excellent taste, good nutrition, so it confidently conquers a decent niche in the consumer market.
Popular varieties of winter garlic
- Komsomolets.Firing, mid-ripening, with a period of vegetation120 days (from the moment of emergence to the moment of leaf lodging). Variety of garlic Komsomolets is characterized by high frost resistance, sharp taste. The bulb is large enough, round-flat.
- Dubkovsky.A bright representative of a variety of winter garlic: medium-ripening variety, characterized by bright green leaves, a weak waxy coating and a round-flat bulb shape with 10-12 teeth. Vegetation period is 98-114 days. The teeth have dense flesh and a pungent taste.
- Novosibirsk.Non-ripening medium-ripening variety with vegetativethe period of 75-81 year. Has dark green leaves, pale pink color of scales, round-flat bulb with 4-10 teeth. From the 1st quarter. meter on average, you can collect 1 kilogram. The grade is characterized by good frost resistance.
- The Gribov Jubilee.Medium late-breaking grade,characterized by high winter hardiness, medium cautiousness, practically immune to diseases and pests. In the bulb there are 8-11 teeth of very acute taste. The color of the scales is violet with slight dark purple veins. Bulb weight from 20 to 45 grams, productivity - 1.2 kg / square. m.
- Messidor.The variety, derived in Holland, is characterized byhigh yield (about 400-500 kg / weave), good resistance to disease and early maturation. The stem reaches a height of 50-70 cm, the bulb is large, consists of 9-14 lobules, the mass of each 6-8 grams. Garlic grade Messidor is ideal for long-term storage and market sales.
Features of planting a crop
Plants for varieties of garlic winter crops should becook in advance, a couple of weeks before planting, around August. Punching should be done immediately before planting. The depth of planting is about 4-5 cm from the crown of the tooth on the surface of the earth. The optimal distance between the rows is about 35 cm, between the denticles in the row - 10 cm. If the winter is not very snowy, winter garlic will need to be insulated.
When the first shoots appear,loosening of the upper soil layer, thus providing oxygen to the garlic. Watering is recommended during the whole of May and the first half of summer. The rate of irrigation depends on the air temperature.
Top dressing of garlic
It is recommended to combine it with irrigation. In 10 liters of water, you need to dilute 1 tablespoon of urea and apply the solution by sprinkling from the watering can, spending 1 square meter per 2-3 liters of the drug.
The second feeding is done in a couple of weeks: in 10 liters you need to dissolve 2 tbsp. spoons of nitroammophoska, using on 1 meter square 3-4 liters. The third, the last top dressing is made during the formation of the bulb (the second decade of June). It is necessary to dilute in 10 liters 2 tablespoons of ground superphosphate, consumption per 1 square meter - 3-4 liters.
You need to remove the trailing varieties in Junearrow, which will cause nutrients to enter the bulb. Garlic is harvested in sunny dry weather with a mass yellowing of the lower leaves. For a full vegetation period, 3.5 months is enough. Early harvesting of culture may adversely affect its storage. Collected garlic must be dried, cleaned of dirt, a week later cut off the tops and roots and dry for another three weeks.