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ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF "PSYCHE"
Despite the considerable age of psychology and the large number of works devoted to it, at present there is not only a singledefinitions of the concept of "psyche"but also a unified methodological approach to this issue.
The concept of "psyche" differs significantly in various conceptual approaches to this problem.
In accordance with a different understanding of the psyche can be identified and
Three main approaches to understanding psychology, as teachings about the psyche:
● materialistic approachconsidering psychology as the science of the nervous system (including the brain), its manifestations, properties, patterns, diagnostics. In other words - as a science of the psyche without a soul;
● idealistic approachconsidering psychology, as the doctrine of the individual soul (that is, the soul when it is outside the body) and its abilities (strengths, properties, features). In other words - as a theory of the psyche without a body;
● an integrated approachconsidering psychology, as the doctrine of the soul and its abilities in conjunction with the body. In other words - as a doctrine about the human psyche or a doctrine about the soul, its powers and their manifestations with the necessary complicity of the body (more precisely, the nervous system).
The human psyche appears only at the connection (a certain interaction) of the soul and body.
Mental processes in humans are a fundamentally new property that is absent both in angels and in individual souls and animals.
You should not identify the ability of the soul to think, feel, produce volitional acts and the same abilities in humans, because in the latter case, their manifestation requires normal functioning of both the brain, in particular, and the nervous system, in general (that is, normal functioning body).
That is why man is a fundamentally new creation of God:
new intelligent creature;
new feeling creature;
new living creature;
new creature at all.
Differences of a person from other living beings, in particular, consist of:
● from sentient beings (disembodied angels and individual souls) - in that it representsunity of the spiritual and material(that is, a whole composed of an immaterial soul and a material body). Therefore, the health (healthy or normal state) of the body is a necessary condition for the normal course of mental phenomena in humans;
● from irrational creatures (animals) - in that hecreated in the image of God,with the possibility of God's likeness and, in particular, endowed with reason and free will (free will).
We note the duality (dualism) of the behavior of an immaterial soul in relation to the dependence of the manifestation of its mental abilities on a real body.
So the activity of the individual soul is completely independent of the state of the body,previously made up with her man. When the same soul is connected with the body (that is, with a person), this dependence is obvious.
We observe a similar dualism in the behavior of the same object in the physical world around us.
So the immaterial light, depending on the conditions of its interaction with real objects, also manifests (behaves) itself in different ways: the way a particle, the wave *.
* For more details on this topic, see “General Aspects of Orthodox Psychology.” - 2nd ed. And add. - Moscow: Gryphon, 2011. - 336 p.- (Essays on Orthodox anthropology. Vol. 6) ".